Record List : Fastest hundreds in test cricket (100s, 200s & 300s).
With evolution of Twenty20 cricket, modern batsmen have started to score quite quickly in one day and test matches as well. Naturally, that day is not far off when someone may thrill the world with a quick ton in longest format.

See list of fastest century in ODIs.

Vivian Richards, West Indies master blaster, didn't play twenty20 cricket, but he always scored quickly anyway. The caribbean legend holds the record of fastest hundred in test match cricket, which he scored off just 56 balls against England at Antigua back on 15 April 1986. With 4 wins in 4 games of that series, West Indies wanted a whitewash and after taking 164 run lead on first innings, it was obvious for them to push for an outright win. Viv Richards (the then captain) unleashed his true self, scoring unbeaten 110 from only 58 runs with 7 fours and 7 sixes to propell his team's lead to 410, helping his bowlers secure a 240 run win. and thus, a clean sweep!

The most recent fastest test match ton is made by Adam Gilchrist, as Australians pushed for a win at Perth. Gilchrist took just 59 balls for his 102 runs, stroking 12 fours and 4 sixes against a depleted England side who went on to suffer yet another whitewash in that 5 test match series!

Nathan Astle of New Zealand holds the record of fastest double century in test match cricket, against England, at Jade stadium in Christchurch. Set 550 to chase, Kiwis were 333 for 9 before Nathan Astle went briserk. With injured Chris Cairns at other end, defending, Astle scored his second hundred runs off just 39 balls, trying to pull off a miraculous win, but Kiwis lost the game by 98 runs.

Record of fastest triple ton (300) in test cricket is held by India's virendra Sehwag, as you can see in 3rd table below. note that most triple centuries were made in yesteryears when cricket stats didn't record the number of balls played but number of minutes batted by the batsmen. hence, cricketing world don't have the accurate figures for fastest trible centuries in test matches.
Fastest century in test cricket.
Batsman (Country) Balls Versus Venue Year
Vivian Richards (West Indies) 56 England Antigua 1986
Adam Gilchrist (Australia) 57 England Perth 2007
John Gregory (Australia) 67 South Africa Jo'burg 1921
David Warner (Australia) 69 India Perth 2012
S Chanderpual (West Indies) 69 Australia G'town 2002
Chris Gayle (West Indies) 70 Australia Perth 2009
Roy Fredericks (West Indies) 71 Australia Perth 1975
Majid Khan (Pakistan) 74 New Zealand Karachi 1976
Kapil Dev (India) 74 Sri Lanka Kanpur 1986
Md Azharuddin (India) 74 South Africa Kolkata 1996
AB de Villiers (SA) 76 India Centurion 2010
Gilbert Jessop (England) 76 Australia The Oval 1902
Fastest double century in test cricket.
Nathan Astle (NZ) 153 England C'church 2001
Virender Sehwag (India) 168 Sri Lanka Mumbai 2009
Virender Sehwag (India) 182 Pakistan Lahore 2005
Virender Sehwag (India) 194 South Africa Chennai 2008
Herschelle Gibbs (SA) 211 Pakistan Cape Town 2002
Adam Gilchrist (Australia) 212 South Africa Jo'burg 2001
Ian Botham (England) 220 India The Oval 1982
Virender Sehwag (India) 222 Pakistan Multan 2003
Virender Sehwag (India) 227 Sri Lanka Galle 2008
Arvinda de Silva (SL) 229 Bangladesh Colombo 2002
Fastest triple century in test cricket.
Virender Sehwag (India) 278 South Africa Chennai 2007
Mathew Hayden (Australia) 362 Zimbabwe Perth 2003
Virender Sehwag (India) 364 Pakistan Multan 2004